RAPHAEL - The Holy Family with the Lamb of 1504
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Catalogue C - Prints and Engravings

Section C translated by David Britt


Cat. No. C 1
Raphael II Sadeler (1584 Antwerp - 1632 Munich)
The Holy Family with the Lamb, 1613

Engraving, 202 x 163 mm
Coburg, Kunstsammlungen der Veste Coburg
Inv. Nr. VII, 281, 106.

Illustration 35
Illustration 35
Click to enlarge
Raphael II Sadeler, The Holy Family with the Lamb,
engraving, Kunstsammlungen der Veste Coburg

Quid sibi vult pastor miti gestatus ab agno?
Hanc metamorphosin quis tibi Naso canit?
An puer est agnus, vel in agno pastor et agnus?
Tartareumve lupum qui cruce vicit, ovat?
Raph. Sadeler Iunior Sculpsit / Monachii M.D.C.XIII.

Raphael Sadeler the Younger, son of Raphael Sadeler the Elder, was probably born in Antwerp in 1584, and is named in the register of the Antwerp Guild of St. Luke in 1610. He was presumably with his father during the latter’s stay in Venice from 1601 to 1604. In 1604 he settled in Munich with his father, with whom he worked on the illustrations to the second and third volumes of the Bavaria Sancta, a collection of Lives of the Saints by the learned Jesuit Matthäus Rader, the first volume of which appeared in Munich in 1615. He died in Munich in 1632.

Sadeler’s engraving, dated 1613, shows composition of The Holy Family with the Lamb, without ascribing it explicitly to Raphael. On the left, it adds a group of the infant St. John reclining with a rabbit beneath a slender elm, its trunk entwined by a luxuriant grapevine. Christ’s precursor, who grasps a bunch of grapes with his left hand, is shown as a boy Bacchus; his physical type is baroque in its opulence. The prolific rabbit on which he leans is a baroque symbol of eternal life. The tall, non-fruiting elm tree, around which the weak but fructiferous vine entwines itself, is a symbol of the mutually beneficial alliance of dissimilar partners.
The Latin verses appended to Sadeler’s engraving apostrophize Ovid, author of the Metamorphoses, asking him the meaning of the metamorphosis shown in the picture and referring to Christ's dual role as the victim and victor who has redeemed humanity through his suffering and thus conquered death. (‘What does the shepherd mean, borne by the gentle lamb? Who will explain this metamorphosis to you, Ovid? Is the boy the lamb, or on the lamb both shepherd and lamb? Or is he who by his Cross vanquished the Wolf and Hell enjoying his triumph?’)
The legend identifies Raphael Sadeler as the engraver, not the inventor of the composition, and dedicates the engraving to Duke Albert of Bavaria. Contradicting Hollstein (XXI, 1980, No. 29), Meyer zur Capellen (1989, p. 98) rightly identifies the dedicatee as the younger brother of Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria; this was Albert VI, ‘Der Leuchtenberger’, Duke in Bavaria (1584-1666; administrator of the territory 1651-54). He also suggests that Sadeler may here be reproducing a painting in Albert’s collection, possibly a composition by a contemporary artist, modified in the ’Dürer-Renaissance’ spirit. However, Sadeler’s detailed engraving cannot possibly be a reproduction of a painting by Raphael in the possession of the Bavarian court; nor can it be regarded as a reproduction of a contemporary painting.
Virtually nothing is known of the art collection, or the artistic tastes, of Albert VI, whose residence, along with the art collection of the reigning Duke Maximilian in the Residenz in Munich, was sacked in 1632 by the occupying troops of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden.
According to the inventories, Maximilian’s Kammergalerie contained two highly prized paintings by Raphael (see Diemer, Kammergalerie, 1980, pp. 140, 167f.) The more celebrated of the two - a Madonna with the Christ Child seated on a cushion - was destroyed in a fire at the Residenz in 1729; the other - a Holy Family with John the Baptist beneath an oak tree - is now regarded as a copy after Raphael. The sources thus provide no evidence to suggest that Sadeler’s 1613 engraving derives from an original by Raphael in the Munich collections. In any case, if Sadeler had been working from a Raphael in the ducal collections, one would expect him to have said so.
That a member of the well-known Sadeler family of engravers, whose fame did not rest solely on their own inventions but above all on their sensitive and precise reproductions of contemporary Italian and Netherlandish - and even early German - painting, made no reference to a composition by Raphael in the Munich collection, though even in 1675 Joachim von Sandrart still made a point of praising Aegidius Sadeler’s engraving of Raphael’s Madonna della Sedia in the Uffizi (Sandrart, 1675, p. 240f.), can only mean that Raphael II Sadeler was already acquainted with the composition of The Holy Family with the Lamb before he moved to Munich.
Sadeler’s reproduction of Raphael’s composition is meticulously detailed. His engraving contains numerous informations that are present only in the 1504 Lee of Fareham version of the painting, including the format, which is tall and narrow by comparison with other panel paintings. The flowers in the foreground can be identified botanically; both the Madrid and Angers versions are less detailed in this area. The engraving also clearly indicates the course of the stream in the middleground. In the arrangement of saplings behind Joseph’s back, the engraving is once more closer to the Lee version than to the first version of the Prado painting, as revealed by UV photography. But there are also differences: the position of the tree at far left, on a grassy hill on the near bank of the river, is better motivated than in the Lee version, where the tree is situated on the far bank. Sadeler has also taken trouble to reproduce the middle ground and background landscape. The engraving retains the Holy Family on the Flight into Egypt, with the donkey, as well as the round tower of the fort in the left background and the gabled house behind the trees in the centre. On the far right, the Lee version is markedly less detailed than the engraving. In the rendering of Mary's garments, her veil, the Lamb's fleece and Joseph's long, sparse hair, the engraving seems to outdo the Lee version in substance and precision.
However, by including the group of John and the rabbit - clearly added by the engraver, and not imitated from a contemporary painting - Sadeler has changed the narrow, upright format to a wider one.
Sadeler’s engraving was followed to a remarkable extent in early seventeenth-century painted copies. In a small gouache, the Monogrammist JFB, unconfident as a figure painter, adopted Sadeler’s composition and added a distant landscape view on the right to convert the image to a landscape format (Auction Lempertz, Cologne, 26 May 1989, Cat. 637, No. 84; gouache on paper, 12.3 X 18.5 cm; monogram and date b.r. JFB 1639; fig. 36). In a small painting (oil on canvas, 35.5 x 26.5 cm), a follower of Hans Rottenhammer (Munich 1654 - 1726 Augsburg) painstakingly converts the Sadeler version of The Holy Family with the Lamb back into an upright format, retaining the landscape and Flight into Egypt in great detail (Auction: Fine Old Master Paintings, London, Phillips, Son & Neale, 16 April 1991; fig. 37).
Sadeler's 1613 engraving thus faithfully reproduces the composition preserved in the Lee version of The Holy Family with the Lamb of 1504 (fig. 35a). Sadeler is unlikely to have been able to study this early Raphael composition in Munich; he probably saw it in Italy. The first to connect Sadeler’s engraving with Raphael’s composition was Vincenzo Vittoria, who in his unpublished catalogue of 1703 mentioned a painting in the Falconieri collection in Rome as lacking the figure of the boy St. John shown in Sadeler’s engraving. According to Meyer zur Capellen, however, there is no documentary record (beyond Vittoria's mention) that the painting ever was in Rome. The Lee version, even in its present state of preservation, is supplemented in several important details by Sadeler's engraving. Seen in conjunction, the two constitute a record of Raphael's composition of 1504. (S. T.)

Illustration 35a
Illustration 35a
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Illustration 37
Illustration 37
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Raphael, The Holy Family with the Lamb, 1504, Private Collection   Circle of Hans Rottenhammer, The Holy Family with the Lamb, after Raphael II Sadeler

Illustration 36
Illustration 36
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Monogrammist JFB, The Holy Family with the Lamb,
after Raphael II Sadeler, 1st half 17th century

Bibl.: J. von Sandrart, 1675, p. 240 – Tauriscus Euboeus, 1819, p. 166, No. 30 – V. Vittoria, 1703, book 5 – Ch. Le Blanc, 1856, vol. III, p. 403 – Lee of Fareham, 1934, p. 14 (0. Fischel) – L. Dussler, 1966, p. 44, No. 73 – L. Dussler, 1971, p. 12 – F. W. Hollstein 1980, vol. XXII, p. 237, No. 9 – Peter Diemer, Materialien zu Entstehung und Ausbau der Kammergalerie Maximilians I. von Bayern, in: Quellen und Studien zur Kunstpolitik der Wittelsbacher vom 16. his zum 18. Jh., cd. H. Glaser, Munich 1980, pp. 129-74 – Exh. Cat. Paris 1983, No. 18 (J. P. Cuzin) – Exh. Cat. Rome 1985, No. XII, 1 – J. Meyer zur Capellen, 1989, p. 108, n. 2

Cat. No. C 2
Carlo Gregori (1719 Florence - 1759 Florence)
The Holy Family with the Lamb, 1613

Etching and Engraving, 378 x 277 mm
Coburg, Kunstsammlungen der Veste Coburg
Inv. Nr. XII, 280, 38

Illustration 38
Illustration 38
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Carlo Gregori, The Holy Family with the Lamb,
engraving, Kunstsammlungen der Veste Coburg

From: Quadri de’ Gerini di Firenze, Florence 1786,
plate 8: Quadro di Raffaello Sanzi d° Raffaello da Ur-
bino / Alto Palmi 2 once 6 Largo Palmi 2 once 2

Carlo Gregori made his reputation in Florence principally as a portrait engraver (portraits of the Grand Dukes of Tuscany). As a reproductive engraver, at the height of the mid-eighteenth-century revival of interest in art history and connoisseurship, he published major paintings of the great Italian masters of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (Raphael, Titian, Correggio, Allori, Domenichino and others), mostly from Florentine collections, in a number of large-scale gallery albums and compilations (Museo fiorentino, Galleria di Firenze, Gabinetto Gerini, Etruria pittrice, Museum Capitolinum ).

The first part of the album Raccolta di Ottanta Stampe rappresentanti i Quadri piu scelti de’ SSig.ri Marchesi Gerini di Firenze must have appeared as early as 1759. In it, Gregori’s engraving after Raphael’s The Holy Family with the Lamb appears as plate 8.
On the strength of the repeated handwritten inscription Galleria Gerini on the reverse of the painting, Jean-Pierre Cuzin convincingly identifies the panel of The Holy Family with the Lamb now in Angers (Cat. No. 2) as the painting reproduced in this engraving. Meyer zur Capellen (1989, p. 100, n. 8) agrees with Cuzin, while pointing to ‘significant differences’ between the painting and the engraving.
The eighteenth-century fame of Raphael’s composition, and of the Gerini Collection, is evidenced by a drawing that was in the collection of the connoisseur, collector and writer Pierre-Jean Mariette, as listed in the inventory of his estate (Catalogue de différens objets de curiosité . . . dépendants de la succession de M. Mariette. Vente du 15 novembre 1775 - 10 janvier 1776, Paris, Basan et Chariot, 1775). The painter, draughtsman and engraver Gabriel de Saint-Aubin made sketches in the margins of his own copy of this 1775 auction catalogue (Collection W. A. Sargent, Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, No. 37 17 13; see Dacier, II, 1931, Cat. No. 1042), including one of the drawings in Mariette’s collection which reproduced the composition of The Holy Family with the Lamb in the version from the Gerini Collection in Florence (see J. P. Cuzin in Exh. Cat. Paris 1983-84, No. 18: ‘15 novo 1775, No. 700: Une Sainte-Famille, où se voit l’enfant Jésus monté sur un mouton, dessiné avec soin à la pierre noire, d’après un superbe tableau de ce maître qui existe à Florence dans la galerie du marquis de Gerini, l’estampe y est jointe.’) As the auction catalogue points out, in his capacity as a collector and connoisseur Mariette also possessed Gregori’s engraving. (S. T.)

Illustration 39
Illustration 39
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Studio of Raphael, The Holy Family with the Lamb,
Musée des Beaux Arts, Angers

Bibl.: J. D. Passavant, 1839, vol. II, p. 91 – Thieme-Becker, Künstlerlexikon, vol. XIV, 1921, p. 577 – Emile Dacier, Gabriel de Saint-Aubin, peintre, dessinateur et graveur (1724-1780), 2 vols., Paris 1929-1931, vol. II, 1931: Catalogue raisonné, No. 1042 – Exh. Cat. Coburg 1983-84, No. 65 (S. Netzer) – Exh. Cat. Paris 1983-84, No. 18 (J. P. Cuzin) – J. Meyer zur Capellen, 1989, p. 100, fig. 2

Cat. No. C 3
Giovita Garavaglia (1790 Pavia - Florence 1835)
The Holy Family with the Lamb, 1817

Engraving, 470 x 347 mm
Pavia, Civici Musei, Var. P. 5369

Illustration 40
Illustration 40
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Giovita Garavaglia, The Holy Family with the Lamb,
engraving, Civici Musei, Pavia

Raffaello da Urbino inv.; Giovita dis. et inc. / All’Egre-
gio Amatore di Belle Arti Il Sig. Mcs. LUIGI MALAS-
PINA di Sannazzaro / Ciambellano di S.M.I.R.A. e ca-
valiere / del nuovo ordine Imple delta Corona Ferrea
etc. etc. / L’originale esiste presso il sullodato cavaliere;
Giovita Garavaglia D.D.D. / In Firenze presso Luigi
Bardi e Comp.

In 1817 Giovita Garavaglia, a pupil of the engraver Faustino Anderloni in Pavia, won the prize awarded by the Accademia Braidense in Milan with his engraving of The Holy Family with the Lamb, after Raphael. The print had been commissioned by Marchese Luigi Malaspina di Sannazzaro (1754-1835). A passionate collector and patron of printmakers in particular, Malaspina was following the example of the great gallery albums of the eighteenth century in publishing one of the masterpieces of his collection in Pavia (Exh. Cat. Rome 1983, p. 188, No. XII, 2; S. Zatti, 1993, p. 195; see also the first state, fig. 41). Malaspina purchased his Raphael copy, which was painted in Modena, from the estate of Luigi Cerretti, a professor of rhetoric who died in Pavia in 1808, and who had himself acquired it at the time of the Napoleonic ‘pillage of the arts.’

As late as 1821 the painting in the Malaspina collection in Pavia (Cat. No. 5) was listed by Pietro Zani (Enciclopedia metodica critica-ragionata delle Belle Arti, part II, vol. VI, Parma 1821, p. 89) as an original by Raphael. But the later inventories of the Galleria Malaspina refer to it as a copy, and in 1839 Johann David Passavant listed it as one of the copies of the Prado painting, mentioning Garavaglia’s engraving.
Garavaglia’s engraving precisely reproduces the composition of the painting in the Malaspina collection, which is ascribed to a North Italian master of the second half of the sixteenth century; this is evident in the relationship between figure group and landscape, and in the details (antique ruins, donkey’s head etc.) The loose linear drawing, which seems designed principally to reproduce the atmospheric values of the original, shows Garavaglia to be an engraver in the tradition of Giuseppe Longhi. He makes a revealing contrast with the rigorous precision of an engraver like Raffael Morghen, whom he succeeded as a teacher at the Florentine Academy in 1833. In 1828 he engraved Raphael’s Madonna della Seggiola in the Uffizi from a drawing by Samuele Jesi. At his early death, in 1835, his engravings of Raphael’s Madonna di Foligno and of the so-called Raphael Self-Portrait remained unfinished. (S. T.)

Illustration 41
Illustration 41
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Giovita Garavaglia, The Holy Family with the Lamb,
engraving, preliminary stage. Civici Musei, Pavia

Bibl.: J. D. Passavant, 1839, vol. II, p. 91, No. 63b – Donata Vicini, Appunti sulla genesi della Pinacoteca Pavese: Luigi Malaspina di Sannazaro (1754-1835), collezionista e mecenate, in Cat. Pavia Pinacoteca Malaspina, with contributions by A. Peroni and Donata Vicini, Pavia 1981, pp. 7-22; fig. p. 11 – Exh. Cat. Rome 1985, p. 188, No. XII, 2 – J. Meyer zur Capellen, 1989, p. 109, n. 10 – Susanna Zatti, Note su Faustino Anderloni e Giovita Garavaglia, incisori a Pavia nella prima metà del Ottocento, offprint from: Bollettino della Società Pavese di storia patria, 1993, pp. 185-95; p. 188, n.14

Cat. No. C 4
Fernando Lasinio (1821 Florence -1865 Florence)
The Holy Family with the Lamb (after Raphael)

Outline etching, 138 x 172 mm
London, British Museum, Department of Prints and
Drawings, Windsor Raphael Collection

Illustration 43
Illustration 43
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Fernando Lasinio, The Holy Family with the Lamb, etching.
British Museum, London; Windsor Raphael Collection

Frontispiece to Giuseppe Vallardi, Notizie sopra un dipinto di Raffaele rappresentante la Sacra Famiglia in riposo, posseduto Jaffa nobile famiglia di Castelbarco, Milan 1842

The Florentine engraver and painter Fernando Lasinio, probably a nephew of the well-known reproductive engraver Carlo Lasinio (1759-1838; see Exh. Cat. Rome 1985, p. 871), produced this delicate outline etching of The Holy Family with the Lamb as frontispiece for the art historian Giuseppe Vallardi's Notizie, published in Florence in 1842.

Immediately after the publication of Johann David Passavant’s monograph on Raphael, Vallardi published the painting of The Holy Family with the Lamb owned by Conte Carlo Castelbarco in Milan as an original work by Raphael, reproducing numerous opinions to that effect signed by distinguished professors at the Florentine Academy.
The engraving records significant details of that painting. The arrangement of three slender saplings behind Joseph’s back and the tall sapling on the extreme left, the tiny figures of the Holy Family on the Flight into Egypt in the middle ground, the meticulously detailed array of flowers and tufts of grass in the foreground, and the proportions of the print, allow a positive identification of the original reproduced here: it is the painting from the collection of Prince Heinrich of Prussia, formerly at Schloss Reinhartshausen, with a provenance dating back to the eighteenth century, when it was in the collection of the Prince of Salerno in Naples (Cat. No. B 1). (S. T.)

Not in the exhibition

Illustration 43a
Illustration 43a
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Copy after Raphael, The Holy Family with the Lamb,
formerly Castle Reinhartshausen

Bibl.: Thieme-Becker, Künstlerlexikon, vol. XXII, 1928, p. 404 – Exh. Cat. Stuttgart 1958-59, No. 152, fig. 71 – J. Meyer zur Capellen, 1989, p. 100 and n. 16

Cat. No. C 5
Vincenzo Rolla (dates unknown)
Virgin Mary with Christ Child and Lamb (after Raphael)

Engraving, 285 x 220 mm
London, British Museum, Department of Prints and
Drawings, Windsor Raphael Collection

Illustration 44
Illustration 44
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Vincenzo Rolla, Compiacenza Materna, engraving.
British Museum, London; Windsor Raphael Collection

Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino dipinse / V. Rolla incise nello studio di C. Dellarocca / COMPIACENZA MATERNA / All’Illustrissimo Signor Conte / GIROLAMO PORTALUPI / Egregio Amatore di Belle Arti / Milano presso li Frat.li Bettalli. Contr. a del Cappello N. 4027 / Ernesto Spampani D.D.D.

Vincenzo Rolla’s reproductive engraving concentrates Raphael’s composition of The Holy Family with the Lamb by omitting the figure of Joseph, behind Mary, and thus makes it into a representation of Compiacenza materna, ‘Maternal Delight’. The engraving - which is entirely free in its handling of the original landscape composition, notably adding a bushy pair of trees on the left - was probably based on a painting that existed in the Milan collection of Count Girolamo Portalupi during the nineteenth century. (S. T.)

Not in the exhibition.

Bibl.: J. D. Passavant, 1839, II, No. 63, p. 92 – J. Meyer zur Capellen, 1989, p. 109, n. 11, No. 5

Additional Reproductive Engravings Mentioned in the Literature


Jean Lenfant (1615 Abbeville -1674 Paris)
The Holy Family with the Lamb (after Raphael)
Engraving (?)
J. Lenfant sculps. et ex.

The pastellist and engraver Jean Lenfant, a pupil of Claude Mellan, engraved works by Italian High Renaissance masters, the Baroque Classicists of the Bologna school (Annibale Carracci, Guido Reni) and designs of his own. Among his reproductions of works by Raphael, the most notable is an engraving of the Madonna delta Sedia in the Uffizi.
In 1839, in the second volume of his monograph on Raphael, Passavant mentioned Lenfant’s engraving as a reproduction of the painting of The Holy Family with the Lamb in the Gerini collection in Florence. It is impossible to be sure, however, which version of The Holy Family with the Lamb Lenfant really saw before his death in Paris in 1674; the earliest certain record of the painting in the Florentine collection is the engraving made by Gregori in the mid-eighteenth century.

Bibl.: J. D. Passavant, 1839, II, No. 63, p. 91 – Charles Le Blanc, Manuel de l’amateur d’estampes, 1854-90, II, p. 532 – Thieme-Becker, Künstlerlexikon, vol. XXIII, 1929, p. 50 – L. Dussler, 1971, p. 11 (?) – J. Meyer zur Capellen, 1989, p. 109, n. 11, No. 10


Antonio Morghen (1788 Rome - 1853 Rome)
Raffael Morghen (1758 Naples - 1833 Florence)
The Holy Family with the Lamb (after Raphael)
A. Morghen sculp. et R. Morghen dir.

Summoned to Florence by Grand Duke Ferdinand II of Tuscany in 1793, the engraver and etcher Raffael Morghen opened a school of engraving there. His biographer and pupil Niccolo Palmieri tells us that Morghen dedicated his reproduction of Raphael’s Madonna della Sedia in the Uffizi to Marchese Manfredini, who had helped him to secure his appointment at the Florentine Court. (Niccolo Palmieri, Opere d’intaglio de Cav. Raffaello Morghen, Florence 1824). In 1803 he became teacher of engraving at the Florentine Academy of Art. Morghen was famous for his reproductive engravings of altarpieces and portraits by the great painters of the Italian High Renaissance (Raphael, Leonardo, Correggio, Titian) and Baroque (Van Dyck) and by contemporary artists (Anton Raffael Mengs, Angelika Kauffmann).
His son Antonio engraved Raphael’s composition of The Holy Family with the Lamb, after Raphael - as Carlo Gregori and later Antonio Lapi also did - from the version best known in the eighteenth century, the one in the Gerini collection in Florence (see Cat. No. 2).

Bibl.: J. D. Passavant, 1839, II, No. 63, p. 91 – Thieme-Becker, Künstlerlexikon, vol. XXV, 1931, p. 150 f. – L. Dussler, 1966, pp. 43-45 – Exh. Cat. Paris 1983, No. 18, pp. 114-17 – Exh. Cat. Coburg 1983-84, No. 14 – J. Meyer zur Capellen, 1989, p. 109, n. 11, No. 8


Angelo Emilio Lapi (1769 Livorno - 1852 Florence)
The Holy Family with the Lamb (after Raphael)

The Florentine draughtsman, engraver and medallist Angelo Emilio Lapi, a pupil of Raffael Morghen, made numerous engravings of paintings by Raphael and Andrea del Sarto. His engraving of The Holy Family with the Lamb after Raphael, like that of his master Raffael Morghen, was made from the celebrated version in the Gerini Collection in Florence.

Bibl.: J. D. Passavant, 1839, II, p. 54 – Thieme-Becker, Künstlerlexikon, vol. XXII, 1928, p. 368 f. – J. Meyer zur Capellen, 1989, p. 109, n. 11, No. 9


Raphael in Umbria

6th April born at Urbino, the son of Magia Ciada amd Giovanni Santi, court painter to Federico da Montefeltre, Duke of Urbino.

On 8th October Raphael’s mother Magia Ciada dies. Vasari records Raphael’s apprenticeship with Pietro Vannucci, called il Perugino, which he may have already begun before his mother’s death in 1491.

On 1st August Raphael’s father, Giovanni Santi (born 1435 ?) dies.

On 5th June court hearing at Urbino concerning Raphael’s inheritance, which was contested by Bernadina Parte, second wife of his father.

On 10th December conclusion of a contract with ‘Magister Rafael Johannis Santis de Urbino et Vangelista Andree de Plano Meleto pictores’ for an altarpiece for the family chapel of Andrea Baronci in S. Agostino, Citta di Castello: the Coronation of St. Nicholas of Tolentino (fragments in Louvre, Paris; Museo Capodimonte, Naples; Pinacoteca Tosio Martinengo, Brescia).

On 13th September payment for the Pala di S. Nicola da Tolentino.

According to Vasari participation in the cartoons for the frescoes of the ‘Biblioteca del Duomo’ in Siena which Cardinal Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini, the future Pope Paul II, had executed under the direction of Pinturicchio in June 1502.

The Gavari Crucifixion (National Gallery, London, formely Mond Collection; predellas: Museu de Arte Antiga, Lisbon; The North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh) commissioned by Dominikus Thomas Gavari for the altar of his family chapel in S. Domenico, Città di Castello. On the altar the inscription: HOC OPVS FIERI FECIT DNICVS THOME DE GAVARIS MDIII. Signed at the foot of the Cross: RAPHAEL VRBINAS P.

The Coronation of the Virgin (Pinacoteca Vaticana, Rome) commissioned by Maddalena Oddi for the altar of the family chapel in S. Francesco, Perugia presumably during the temporary return of the Oddi from exile February-September 1503.

Madonna Conestabile (Eremitage, St. Petersburg). Was property of Alfano di Diamante, Perugia; uncle of Domenico Alfani; probably executed between 1500 and 1504.

St. Michael and the Demon (Louvre, Paris)
St. George and the Dragon (Louvre, Paris)
Probably commissioned by Duke Guidobaldo da Montefeltre or his sister Giovanna Feltria della Rovere, mother of the heir to the throne Francesco Maria della Rovere, widow of the prefect of Rome and patron of the young Raphael. Her brother’s conferment of the Order of St. Michael in 1503 or her son’s conferment of the Order of the Garter on 10th May 1504 may have been the reason for the commissions.

Marriage of the Virgin (Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan)
Signed and dated above the entrance to the temple: RAPHAEL VRBINAS MDIIII. Altarpiece for the Cappella Albizzini in S. Francesco, Città di Castello.


Raphael in Florence

On 1st October 1504 Giovanna Feltria della Rovere signs a letter of recommendation for Raphael to the Gonfaloniere of Florence, Piero Soderini, from whom Raphael hopes to obtain public commissions in Florence.

Influence of the Florentine cartoons for the battle scenes in the Sala del Gran Consiglio of Palazzo Vecchio by Leonardo (Battle of Anghiari) and Michelangelo (Battle of Cascina).

The Holy Family with the Lamb (Private Collection) signed and dated: RAPHAEL VRBINAS AD MDIV

Portraits of Agnolo and Maddalena Doni (Galleria Palatina, Florence)
Probably commissioned on the occasion of the marriage of the wealthy merchant and collector Agnolo Doni to Maddalena, daughter of Giovanni Strozzi in 1504.

Pala Ansidei (National Gallery, London)
Dated MDV on the edge of the mantle of Mary, also read as MDVI or MDVII. According to Vasari the panel was painted for the Cappella Ansidei in S. Fiorenzo dei Serviti, Perugia.

Altar of the Colonna Family (Metropolitan Museum, New York; Christ on the Mount of Olives, Lamentation over the Dead Christ, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston; Christ Carrying the Cross, National Gallery, London)

The Canigiani Holy Family (Alte Pinakothek, Munich)
Signed RAPHAEL VRBINAS on the neckline of Mary’s bodice. Vasari saw the panel in the house of Domenico Canigiani’s heirs in Florence.

Madonna del Granduca (Palazzo Pitti, Florence)
In 1799 acquired by Grand Duke Ferdinand III of Tuscany.

Madonna del Cardellino (Uffizi, Florence)
Probably executed c. 1505/06 on the occasion of Giovanni Nasi’s marriage to Sandra di Matteo di Giovanni, a member of the wealthy Canigiani family, on 23 January 1506.

Madonna of the Meadow (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna)
Dated MDVI on the border of Mary’s dress. Vasari saw two paintings of the Madonna by Raphael’s own hand in the house of Taddeo Taddei in Florence, one in the style of Pietro Perugino, the other already in Raphael’s more mature style.

The Holy Family with the Lamb (Prado, Madrid)
Signed and dated below the neckline of Mary’s bodice: RAPHAEL VRBINAS MDVII IV

The Entombment (Galleria Borghese, Rome)
Three predellas showing the Theological Virtues (Pinacoteca Vaticana, Rome). Signed and dated RAPHAEL VRBINAS MDVII. Commissioned by Atalanta Baglioni for the family chapel in S. Francesco al Prato, Perugia in memory of her son Grifone, murdered in 1500. Pope Paul III gave the panel to his nephew Scipione Borghese.

Small Cowper Madonna (National Gallery of Art, Washington)
Perhaps to be identified with that small Madonna for Giovanna Feltria della Rovere which Raphael mentions in a letter dated 21st April 1508.

Madonna del Baldacchino (Palazzo Pitti, Florence)
According to Vasari commissioned probably in July 1507 by the heirs of Rinieri di Bernardo Dei for the family chapel in S. Spirito, Florence. Left unfinished probably because of Raphael’s move to Rome. Acquired by Baldassare Turrini, Raphael’s executor and confidant of Pope Leo X, for his chapel in the Duomo of Pescia. Probably already displayed there before 1520.

Large Cowper Madonna (National Gallery of Art, Washington)
Signed and dated: M.D.VIII, R.V. Pin.
Acquired in 1780 for the Cowper Collection from the Florentine Niccolini Collection. In the Mellon Collection since 1937.

La Belle Jardinière (Louvre, Paris)
Signed on the border of Mary’s dress: RAPHAELLO VRB. and dated M.D.VIII
According to Vasari painted for the Sienese nobleman Filippo Sergardi, a high cleric at the Court of Pope Leo X. Acquired by Francis I of France in Siena.


Raphael in Rome

Raphael summoned to Rome by Pope Julius II. Begins the decoration of the papal chambers in the Vatican (Stanze) with the Stanza della Segnatura.

On 4 October Raphael is appointed Writer of the Papal Briefs.

Frescoing of the Stanza d’Eliodoro, Vatican. Completed 1514.

Madonna di Foligno (Pinacoteca Vaticana, Rome)
Commissioned by the historian Sigismondo Conti, Chamberlain and Papal Secretary, Prefect of the Fabric of St. Peter’s to Pope Julius II, who is depicted as a donor kneeling next to his Patron Saint, St. Jerome. The patron who died on 18th February 1512 was buried in S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome, where Raphael’s Madonna di Foligno decorated the high altar until 1565. Anna Conte, the patron’s niece, moved the picture into the Convent Church of the Contesse di Foligno.

Beginning of the decoration of the Villa Farnesina, commissioned by the Sienese banker, Agostino Chigi. Completed in 1514. Beginning of the frescoing of the Cappella Chigi in S. Maria della Pace, Rome, at the behest of Agostino Chigi.

Portrait of Pope Julius II (Uffizi, Florence)

The Sistine Madonna (Gemäldegalerie, Dresden)
Commissioned by the Benedictine Monks of S. Sisto, Piacenza for the high altar of the church with the reliquaries of St. Barbara, St. Sixtus. The Portrait of Pope Julius II della Rovere (died 1513) who is immortalized in the figure of the St. Sixtus was probably included in memory of Pope Sixtus II, the first pope from the House of the della Rovere.

Election of Leo X to the Holy See, a member of the Medici family.

Madonna della Sedia (Uffizi, Florence)
1613 came to Florence with the heritage of the della Rovere.

After the death of Donato Bramante nomination of Raphael to the post of Architect-in-Chief of St. Peter’s. In the same year Raphael was appointed Commissary of Antiquities of the city of Rome.

St. Cecilia (Pinacoteca Comunale, Bologna)
Commissioned by Elea Duglioni dell’Olio, Bologna, for the chapel of St. Cecilia in St. Giovanni in Monte Uliveto, Bologna; probably executed 1514/16.

Portrait of Bindo Altoviti (Kress Collection, National Gallery, Washington)

Beginning of work on the cartoons for the tapestries for the Sistine Chapel, Vatican; completed in 1518.

Christ Carrying the Cross (Museo del Prado, Madrid)
Signed: RAPHAEL VRBINAS; Commissioned c. 1515 for the monastery of the Oliveti of S. Maria dello Spasimo, Palermo.

The Transfiguration (Pinacoteca Vaticana, Rome)
Commissioned in 1516 by Cardinal Giulio de’ Medici for his bishopric, the Cathedral at Narbonne. The painting probably begun in July 1518; adorned Raphael’s catafalque in the Pantheon after his death.

Decoration of the Loggie at the Damasus Cortile, Vatican, Rome.

Portrait of Pope Leo X with Cardinal Giulio de’ Medici and Cardinal Lorenzo de’ Rossi (Galleria Palatina, Florence). The painting was sent to Florence in September 1518.

Vision of Ezechiel (Galleria Palatina, Florence)
Vasari saw this small format panel in the house of Conte Vincenzo Ercolani in Bologna.

Frescoing of the Loggia di Psyche in Villa Farnesina, Rome, with representations of the story of Cupid and Psyche after Apuleius’s ‘Golden Ass’; probably in view of the marriage of Agostino Chigi to Francesca Ordeaschi. Decoration completed in early 1519.

St. Michael Fighting Satan (Louvre, Paris)
Signed and dated at the border of St. Michael’s garment:
Donated to King Francis I of France, probably in connection with the Concordance of Bologna by order of the Pope, by Lorenzo de’ Medici, as confirmed by numerous letters dating from 1518.

The Holy Family of Francis I (Louvre, Paris)
Signed and dated on the border of Marie’s mantle:
Commissioned in 1518 by Pope Leo X as a present for Queen Claude of France and delivered at Fontainebleau.

The Visitation (Prado, Madrid)
Signed centrally at the bottom: RAPHAEL VRBINAS F:MARINVS BRANCONIVS F.F.
Probably commissioned for S. Silvestro in L’Aquila by Marino Branconio through mediation of his son Giovanni, Chamberlain at the Papal Court. Since 1665 in the Escorial.

The Holy Family under the Oak Tree (Prado, Madrid)
Signed below the cradle: RAPHAEL PINXIT.

Raphael died on Good Friday, 6th April 1520. Buried in the Pantheon, Rome.

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