RAPHAEL - The Holy Family with the Lamb of 1504
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Catalogue B - Paintings Not Exhibited

 

Cat. No. B 1
Italian Master, 1st half 16th century
The Holy Family with the Lamb

Poplar, 27.8 x 22.3 cm
Whereabouts unknown

Illustration 29
Illustration 29
Click to enlarge
Copy after Raphael, The Holy Family with the Lamb,
formerly Castle Reinhartshausen


Principe di Salerno Collection, Naples (?); c. 1840-1870 Conte Carlo di Castelbarco-Albani Collection, Milan; Baldeschi Collection, Rome; Queen Marianne of the Netherlands Collection; at about 1930 at Auction Graupe, Berlin; Prince Heinrich von Preußen Collection, Castle Reinhartshausen.

The copy generally rated very highly by scholars follows the painting at Angers (Cat. No. 2) faithfully in its design. Its dimensions (27.8 x 23.3 cm) are smaller than those of the Madrid and Angers pictures. Compared to the Lee painting (Cat. No. 1) the foreground decked with flowers and a large section of the sky are missing. At the lower edge of the picture the leg of the lamb is overlapped; the barely visible display of flowers corresponds roughly to the Lee and Angers exemplars. Further direct links with the Angers picture are identifyable in Mary’s diaphanous veil, the rendering of the trees on the right and left of Joseph, as well as the ‘tree at the back of Joseph’ with its characteristic forking. The landscape of the background with its buildings is very subtly executed and depicts all details in accordance with the Lee and Prado pictures (structure of the church; the castle on the mountain; towers and the house surrounded by trees in the distance, staffage figures of the Flight into Egypt, among others). These passages are less well preserved in the Angers picture.
The heads of Mary, Joseph and the Child correspond in their expression quite closely with those in the Angers picture.
It therefore seems that this copy of outstanding quality is closely connected with the version at Angers, which was produced in Raphael’s studio. The painter Friedrich Overbeck (1782 Lübeck - 1869 Rome) rated it an original from Raphael’s own hand (Exh. Cat. Stuttgart 1959). Research since 1883 has always stressed its proximity to the Madrid or Lee painting, both of which do, however not show the ‘tree at the back of Joseph’.
O. Fischel (1948) called the picture ‘a good 16th century copy’; L. Dussler (1966) limited its date of origin to the 1st half of the 16th century. The copy was probably painted even earlier, in the 1st quarter or the 1st thirty years of the 16th century by a member of Raphael’s circle or his successors.

Engraving by Fernando Lasinio (cf. Cat. No. C 4).

Bibl.: G. Vallardi, Notizie sopra un dipinto di Raffaele rappresentante la Sacra Famiglia in riposo posseduto dalla nobile famiglia di Castelbarco, Milan 1842, passim – J. A. Crowe, G. B. Cavalcaselle, 1883, p. 268 note* – Lee of Fareham, 1934, p. 14 (0. Fischel) – (Th. Musper), Exh. Cat. Meisterwerke aus baden-württembergischem Privatbesitz, Stuttgart 1958, p. 64/65 No. 152 – L. Dussler, 1966, p. 44 – L. Dussler, 1971, pp. 11, 53 – J. M. Lehmann, 1980, p. 212 – J. M. Lehmann, 1987, pp. 12-13 – J. Meyer zur Capellen, 1989, pp. 100, 109, note 11 – C. Pedretti, 1989 p. 60 note 1 – Annette Dopatka-Saltenberger, Das Kunstmuseum Reinhartshausen der Prinzessin Marianne der Niederlande in Erbach im Rheingau, MA-Uni. Frankfurt/M., Prof. Kiesow, SS 1989 (Sommersemester 1989)


Cat. No. B 2
Attributed to Gianfrancesco Penni (1488-1528)
The Holy Family with the Lamb

Wood, 27.9 x 21.6 cm (11 x 8½ inch.)
Wilton House (Salisbury),
Earl of Pembroke Collection
Cat. Wilton House, 1968, No. 215
Cleaned, broken panel repaired and cradled in 1934

Illustration 30
Illustration 30
Click to enlarge
Copy after Raphael, The Holy Family with the Lamb,
Earl of Pembroke Collection, Wilton House


Already before 1730 in the Earl of Pembroke Collection, Wilton House. Probably acquired by Thomas, 8th Earl of Pembroke (died in 1733).

‘The Virgin, wearing a red and blue dress, with Joseph in blue and brown, leaning on his staff behind her, holds the infant Christ, who is seated on a lamb at her feet. Background of rocky hills with buildings and trees... There are other copies in European Galleries after Raphael’s masterpiece of 1507 in the Prado, Madrid, No. 296’ (Cat. Wilton House, 1968).
The painting which could unfortunately not be lent to the Kassel Exhibition, corresponds in its dimensions roughly to the painting at Reinhartshausen (27.9 x 21.6 as against 27.8 x 22.3 cm, cf. Cat. No. B 1). They also concur in the very cropped representation (the leg of the lamb almost touches the lower edge of the picture, scant zone of sky above Joseph’s head). It could therefore be identical with the painting which had been offered to Grand Duke Cosimo III de’ Medici from Urbania in 1676/77 (C. Pedretti, 1989). The plants in the foreground are depicted in detail and follow the Angers exemplar (Cat. No. 2), which is less well preserved in this zone. Individual motifs (dandelion, coltsfoot, the plant with white blooms on the left) revert directly to the Lee picture.
The landscape on the left is very much simplified. The tree on the left edge of the picture is missing and the wide path behind the strip of water (no group of figures can be discerned on the path), leads to the building which appears only as a silhouette between the surrounding trees. Even weaker are the mountain with the castle and the mountains in the distance. The tree at the back of Joseph accords with the exemplars in the museums at Angers (Cat. No. 2) and the painting formerly at Reinhartshausen (Cat. No. B l), as does the depiction of the small trees near the right edge of the picture.
The heads of the figures, without haloes, seem simplified and reduced in powers of expression. The veil of St. Mary and her ornamented neckline are barely visible any longer.
Although the painting largely accords with the exemplars in the Prado, at Angers and Reinhartshausen in the principal features of the figurative composition and in the foreground, the summary and abbreviated rendering of the middle distance and background does not support the attribution of this copy to Raphael’s collaborator, Gianfrancesco Penni.
Works associated with Penni, such as the Coronation of the Virgin of Monteluce, Vatican, Rome; The Temptation of Christ, Christ Carrying the Cross, (formely S. Spasimo di Sicilia); the Transfiguration, all in the Prado; St. Luke Painting the Madonna, Accademia di S. Luca, Rome; the Flagellation, S. Prassede, Rome, show this pupil and assistant of Raphael to be a well versed, even if a somewhat dry and meticulous painter. (For the above paintings cf. S. Ferino-Pagden, Exh. Cat. Giulio Romano, Mantua 1989, p. 65 f., figs. pp. 66, 72; F. Ambrosio, Giulio Romano, Milan 1991, pp. 8,9, fig. 10;
G. Kraut, Lukas malt die Madonna, Worms 1986, p. 59 f., fig. 13). Despite the tradition going back to the 18th century, the attribution to Penni can hardly be upheld; the picture was probably produced by an anonymous follower in the 1st half of the 16th century.

Bibl.: J. A. Crowe, G. B. Cavalcaselle, 1883, p. 268 note* – Sidney, 16th Earl of Pembroke, A Catalogue of the paintings and drawings in the collection at Wilton House, Salisbury, London-New York 1968, p. 80, No. 215, fig. 83 – J. M. Lehmann, 1987, p. 13

 

Colour Plate X
Colour Plate X
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Copy after Raphael, The Holy Family with the Lamb,
Earl of Pembroke Collection, Wilton House, Salisbury



Cat. No. B 3
Attributed to Gianfrancesco Penni (1488-1528)
The Holy Family with the Lamb

Wood, c. 17 x 26 cm
Formerly Lord Northbrook Collection, London

Illustration 31
Illustration 31
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Variant after Raphael, The Holy Family with the Lamb,
formerly Lord Northbrook Collection, London


This variant, changed to an oblong format, was already known in the 19th century. O. Fischel described it thus: ‘In the Lord Northbrook Collection another rendering of this composition was ascribed to Raphael’s pupil, Giovanni Francesco Penni. The landscape was altered and enlarged, and Raphael’s composition consequently deformed’.
Even less than the copy of the Pembroke Collection (Cat. No. B 2) can this version, which transmits the figurative group quite correctly in its canonical form, be considered a work by G. F. Penni. Through the widening of the picture format, especially towards the left, and through its diminution, a new miniature-like character has been created. Though the tree on the right next to Joseph adheres to the original composition, the landscape has been greatly broadened on the left, showing a wealth of vegetation in the foreground, a large deciduous tree on the left edge of the picture and a building resembling a church on a hill, which is reached by a path with staffage figures (Flight into Egypt). A wide river runs across the middle distance, behind which a wide landscape with buildings and minute figures recedes into the distance.
Without knowledge of the original it is extremely difficult to establish the date of origin of this picture. The painter seems to have known one of the well-known versions (Madrid or Cat. Nos. 1-5). The fact that he has dispensed with ‘the tree at the back of Joseph’ suggests the exemplars Lee, Madrid and Kassel as possible models. The overall design and the details of the wide landscape infer that the picture originated in the 16th century.

Bibl.: J. A. Crowe, G. B. Cavalcaselle, 1883, p. 268 note* – Lee of Fareham, 1934, p. 14 (0. Fischel) – L. Dussler, 1966, p. 44 – L. Dussler, 1971, p. 11 – J. M. Lehmann, 1980, p. 212 – J. Meyer zur Capellen, 1989, p. 109 note 11


Cat. No. B 4
Italian Master, 16th century
The Holy Family with the Lamb

Poplar 43.8 x 38 cm
The National Museum, Warsaw, Inv. No. 794

Illustration 32
Illustration 32
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Variant after Raphael, The Holy Family with the Lamb,
National Museum, Warsaw. Inv. No. 794


Presumably from the Perez Collection, Valencia (cf. Cat. Warsaw 1865); C. Lachnicki Collection, Warsaw; 1908 donated to the Museum.

A free, in many passages transformed variant of Raphael’s composition. While the figures of Mary and the Christ Child are still based on the Lee model (as are the flowers in the foreground, though modified and enriched), St. Joseph, to the right of, no longer behind, Mary, walks towards the group, which brings also his right leg into sight. He is accompanied, on the right, by a mule which pushes its head into the picture; behind the mule a slender tree of the familiar type; the ‘tree at the back of Joseph’ is missing. A wide river runs through the middle distance; on its left bank some tall buildings and a castle can be discerned. In the background mountain ranges similar to those in the Lee painting are adumbrated. The staffage figures of the Flight into Egypt are omitted.
Up to now the painting has been considered a copy dating from the 1st quarter of the 16th century. But this dating seems too early compared to the very faithful replicas and copies of this timespan (Cat. Nos. 2, 3, B 1). The few elements which are characteristic of ‘the style of the period’ (the mule, the landscape) seem instead to point to a date of origin around the middle of the 16th century or later. The scientific-technological tests indicate that the picture was painted during the 16th century (cf. Cat. Warsaw 1979).
The state of preservation is fairly mediocre; the wooden panel is slightly vaulted; blistering is found over the whole surface, fractures in the pigmentation and grounding are rare. Restoration by B. Marconi in 1938.

Bibl.: Katalog obrazów zbioru p. Cypryana Lachnickiego, pp. 11-12, No. 54, Warsaw 1865 – Czesc zbiorów C. Lachnickiego w. Warszawie, Warsaw – Cracow 1903, fig. 17 – W. Tartarkiewicz, Die Bilder des Warschauer Museums, in: Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst, N. F., XXI, 1910, p. 262 – J. Starzynski, M. Walicki, Cat. Galerii Malarstwa Obcego, Museum Narodowe w Warszawie, Warsaw 1938, No. 51 – J. Bialostocki, Galeria Malarstwa Obcego, Malarstwo wolskie, hispanszkie, francuskie, XV, XVI, XVII, XVIII wieku, Warsaw 1955, pp. 17-18 – Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie, Galeria Malarstwa Obcego Przewodnik, wyd. II, Warschau 1964, pp. 69, 115 – Malarstwo Europejskie, Katalog zbiorów, Museum Narodowe w Warszawie, I - 1967; II - 1969; Engl. edition: Catalogue of Paintings, Foreign Schools, National Museum in Warsaw, I - 1969; II - 1970; Warsaw 1970, No. 1025 – Cat. Muzeum Narodowe Warszawie, Galeria Malarstwa Obcego, Malarstwo Francuskie ...do 1600, Warsaw 1979, pp. 145-146 – J. M. Lehmann, 1980, p. 212 – J. Meyer zur Capellen, 1989, p. 109 note 11


Cat. No. B 5
Italian Master, 16th century
The Holy Family with the Lamb

Wood, 30.4 x 22.3 cm
Galleria Nazionale d’ Arte Antica, Palazzo Corsini,
Rome, Inv. No. 249

Principi Corsini Collection, 1883

Illustration 33
Illustration 33
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Copy after Raphael, The Holy Family with the Lamb,
Galleria Corsini, Rome

This very summary copy with its somewhat crude treatment of the figures' faces, their garments and the landscape, has been entirely ignored in the recent art historical literature. It was last mentioned by J. Crowe and G. B. Cavalcaselle (1883).
The tree at the back of Joseph, the tree on the left edge of the picture and the two small trees on the right indicate the influence of the exemplars at Angers (Cat. No. 2) and the former Reinhartshausen (Cat. B 1). All figures had been given a halo, however that of Mary is hardly visible any longer.
The Principi Corsini Collection goes back in essence to the 18th century, when Cardinal Neri Corsini, the nephew of Pope Clemens XII built up a collection of paintings, a large library and a collection of drawings and graphic designs in the Palazzo Corsini. The small copy after Raphael is, however, not mentioned in the inventories of the 18th and early 19th centuries.
It can therefore be assumed that the painting was acquired in the middle of the 19th century by Prince Tommaso Corsini who bought a group of 13th - 15th century paintings from Luisa Corsini in Florence (This information kindly provided by Dr. Sivigliano Alloisi, Galleria Corsini). The file on the picture records that the copy had first been entered as by Perino del Vaga, then as Copy after Raphael and lastly, as Tuscan School of the 16th Century.

The painting has been kept for years in storage.

Bibl.: J. A. Crowe, G. B. Cavalcaselle, 1883, p. 268 note*


Cat. No. B 6
Unknown Master, 16th century ( ? )
The Holy Family with the Lamb
Material and measurements unknown
Whereabouts unknown
Photograph Kunsthistorisches lnstitut, Florence,
negative No. 21 037

Illustration 34
Illustration 34
Click to enlarge
Copy after Raphael, The Holy Family with the Lamb, whereabouts unknown.
Photograph: Kunsthistorisches lnstitut, Florence

This copy which is only known from photographic reproduction shows the group of figures concurring in the main with the painting in the Prado (Colour Plate III), with which also some of the details accord: St. Mary’s dense veil; depiction of church buildings and castle; omission of the tree at the back of Joseph, among others.
Evidently, the wealth of plants in the foreground exceeds all other known exemplars (including the Madrid picture). Strange phenomena are the simplifications in the middle zone; the tree on the left is totally missing and the two slender trees on the right edge of the picture appear to be swaying in the wind.
The heads of St. Mary and St. Joseph seem coarser and less expressive; the decoration of the neckline of Mary’s bodice appears to have been only partly executed. The quality of this copy is apparently weak; no judgement can be offered concerning the state of preservation.

Bibl.: J. Meyer zur Capellen, 1989, p. 109 note 11, No. 16

 


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